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A number of the specimens recovered from the Piltdown pit and vicinity are indistinguishable in mineralogical content, coloration, and character from materials derived from several Red Crag and Norwich Crag localities in the United Kingdom.
The bulk of these assemblages were known by collectors for decades before the first Piltdown "discovery" and served as a supply pool for Natural History supply houses in London and elsewhere. Washington, DC: International Palaeontological Association.
Although trace-element analyses might generate a more specific signature for the composition of materials at these sites, at present efforts to narrow the roster of potential Piltdown source-localities to particular domestic assemblages has not proven fruitful.
A possible Maltese link was initially noted by Weiner et al (1955) who pointed out Hippopotamus teeth from the John H.
During the summer of 1901 Woodward (1901) and his wife Maud made extensive excavations at Pikermi and recovered a diverse fauna, including proboscideans.
The BMNH collection appears to be the only one in Britain sampling the Pikermi fauna until the fraud unfolded.
Woodward acquired several Ona and Fuegean skulls in 1899.
Illustrations of an Ona cranium were found inserted into the pages of Woodward's personal copy of Keith's Antiquity of Man.
The broken molar plates from Piltdown have also been variously classified as "Stegodon" (Dawson and Woodward 1913), E. [Archidiskodon] planifrons (Freudenberg 1915, Matsumoto 1924, Osborn 1943), or diagnosed merely as a "primitive" elephantid close to the Early Pliocene origin of the taxon (Maglio, 1973). Subfossil Pongo specimens were catalogued into the Natural History Museum by Woodward in 1899. Oakley noted that a Patagonian archeological specimen may have served as the "remarkably thick" cranium used in the fraud. Oakley surmounted this problem by hypothesizing that a single tooth from Ichkeul might have been acquired in a Tunisian souk and then brought to Britain via agents in the antiquities trade. The tooth would have then been purchased and broken up to provide the several fragments used in the fraud. Osborn's (1942) analysis of wear and morphology indicates that the Piltdown sample consists of fragments from three distinct specimens.
Known chemical compositions of fossils from over 500 Plio-Pleistocene samples (Weiner et al 1967,1971,1975; and other sources) were contrasted with specimens utilized in the Piltdown forgery (Weiner et al).