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in 1997, Kathleen Ledecky (Katie, for short) did not waste much time before beginning her already-legendary swimming career. swimming scene in 2012 at the Olympic Trials, where she was the youngest swimmer at the meet.She trained with Nation’s Capital Swim Club, where she was first coached by Yuri Suguiyama, followed by Bruce Gemmel after Yuri’s departure to Cal. Her time of .63 was incredibly close to the World Record and broke Janet Evans’ long-standing American Record of .22.In contrast, the Chinese-American babies accepted almost any position without crying or resisting.When a light was shone in their eyes, the Euro-American babies would continue to blink long after the Chinese-American babies had stopped blinking (Freedman and Freedman, 1969; Freedman, 2004).Nonetheless, as with differences in intellectual capacity, we’re probably looking at an accumulation of small effects at many different genes. Natural selection acts on what genes produce, and not directly on genes, so there is no reason to believe that a single behavioral outcome has a single genetic cause.
Infant calmness can thus arise in relatively simple societies, and not just in advanced ones as I had argued in my last post. Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in Han Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Increased prevalence of the 2-repeat allele, , Greenwood Publishing Group.
These findings were partially replicated by another American psychologist, Jerome Kagan, who found that Chinese 4-month-olds cried, fretted, and vocalized less than Euro-American infants. In a study of Euro-American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month olds, the last group was the least expressive one, being least likely to smile or cry.
At older ages, however, the pattern reversed with Chinese Americans fretting and crying more when separated from their mothers (Kagan et al., 1978; Kagan et al., 1994). The Japanese babies either fell between the two other groups or were like the Euro-American babies (Camras et al., 1998).
Behavior can likewise differ between infants from different complex societies.
We’ve seen this with Chinese-American and Euro-American babies, the latter having a less easy temperament.
Some anthropologists have attributed this finding to a traditional practice of tying the baby to a cradleboard.