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For instance, since 2014, Danish Growth Capital, a government investment fund, has aimed to improve access to risk capital for entrepreneurs and SMEs by using pension funds (OECD 2015).[ii] This model could be a strategy for financial institutions of the other Nordic countries to follow.
Our study, however, provides a snapshot of institutions over a limited time period.
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This challenge may explain, for example, why European imitation of policies aimed at stimulating venture capital has been unsuccessful (e.g., European Commission 2013).[i] Institutions are complementary if the presence or efficiency of one institution increases the returns from or efficiency of the other.
Institutional complementarities imply that viable policy changes must be compatible with the existing institutional composition.
Six country clusters Our results are in part consistent with previous typologies proposed in the literature, but with several important differences.
A common reform approach is to identify a country that appears to be performing well in a particular institutional dimension and to promote this institution in other countries.They have high-quality legal systems, high governmental expenditure on research and education, and value individualism, long-term orientation, and masculinity.Belgium and France are similar in all dimensions and therefore form a separate group.We know from the literature that there may be more than one institutional form that can result in good economic outcomes.Our study covers 21 European countries and includes the United States as a point of comparison because it is considered successful in terms of entrepreneurship.
Countries in this group have relatively little necessity-based nascent entrepreneurship and moderate levels of opportunity-entrepreneurship in new and established businesses.